Digestion And Absorption In Ruminants. Mouth

A couple of lips secures the oral pit  (mouth). The rims are highly vascularized, the tissue is skeletal muscle with a great abundance of sensitive nerve endings.

The lips help retain food when chewed and play an essential role in phonation (sound modification.).

The initial step in digestion is prehension or the transport of food in the mouth. In the goat, the lips, teeth, and tongue are the primary organs of prehension. The rim of goats and sheep are very important to grab food, while the cow makes more use of the language to take and break the grass and grasses. Thus, the goat is capable of being more selective.


Bovine lower jaw The function of the teeth is the first mechanical digestion process, the grinding of huge particles of nourishment into littler particles (vanLoon, 1976 in 2). The herbivores have compound teeth called Hypsodontes teeth, and other animals have simple teeth or Brachydont.

The herbivore teething should allow the continuous and considerable wear of the chewing surfaces.

The goats, as in other ruminants, lack the upper incisors. Instead, they have a hardened dental pad, against which they bite.

Chewing is necessary for reducing food to smaller particle sizes. The goats present a lateral movement of the jaws accentuated, which significantly increases the grinding action of the teeth. These lateral movements cause the molars to develop a pointed surface the pounding of substantial particles of nourishment into littler particles. Since the upper jaw is more extensive than the lower jaw, only one side of the mouth can be used each time to grind the food.


The food is not held in the oral cavity of a quadruped by a stream of water; then there is a need for a muscular tongue for digestion, transport, and food intake. The language is also used in many other ways. Apart from variations in the form of the tongue, the various regions of the tongue have elevations of the mucosa called papillae that have mechanical function and gustatory function.

Mammal taste pap: Although taste and smell have a lot in common, we think of odor as the chemical information carried in the air and feeling like the chemical information of the material in the taste buds lingual contact with the parts of the mouth. Although the taste buds are used primarily to find and recognize food, they are also related to sexual and behavioral interaction. Clusters of cells detect the taste in a barrel form called taste buds. Taste buds are abundant in mammals. Most are associated with papillae on the tongue but can be found on the palate, pharynx, and epiglottis.

Epithelial cell layer: this layer is in contact with and upholstering of the lumen of the lingual taste papilla, the arrow indicates the thickness of epithelial cells via the digestive tract, it is composed of epithelial cells whose morphology and function vary as long digestive tract. The epithelium can be formed of squamous epithelial cells stratified in regions where the digestive tract its primary purpose is the transport of the food (e.g., the esophagus); or this can be composed of secretory cells (e.g., in parts of the stomach); or absorption cells (eg, duodenum), or both.